Suggested Cultural Practices
by M.C. Palada and L.C. Chang
Moringa (Moringa spp.) is one of the world’s most useful plants. This fast-growing tree is grown throughout the tropics for human food, livestock forage, medicine, dye, and water purification (Figs. 1, 2). It is known by several names in different countries, but is popularly called the “drumstick tree" for its pods that are used by drummers and the “horseradish tree” for the flavor of its roots.
Moringa is one of the world’s most nutritious crops. Ounce for ounce, the leaves of moringa have more beta-carotene than carrots, more protein than peas, more vitamin C than oranges, more calcium than milk, more potassium than bananas, and more iron than spinach. Native to South Asia, this tree is becoming a vital source of nutrition in this region, where most of the world’s poor people live. The multiple uses of moringa have attracted the attention of researchers, development workers, and farmers.
The following suggested cultural practices were developed at AVRDC in the Taiwan lowlands. Growers may need to modify the practices to suit local soil, weather, pest, and disease conditions.
Nutritional and Functional Properties of Moringa Leaves − From Germplasm, to Plant to Food, to Health
by Ray-Yu Yang, Lien-Chung Chang and Virginie Levasseur
Moringa and Other Highly Nutritious Plant Resources: Strategies, Standards and Markets for a Better Impact on Nutrition in Africa.
Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal, fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions.
Newton Amaglo's Square foot garden
Moringa culture and economy in Niger
Armelle de Saint Sauveur and Gaelle Hartout
In Africa, the cooked leaves of Moringa are frequently eaten as the principal ingredient of a sauce. These leaves are generally harvested from trees found within household gardens or planed as part of living fences around gardens.
Niger is one of the rare countries where one can find Moringa cultivated in plantations as a cash crop. This agricultural production system was developed entirely by local farmers without any intervention by extension services. The non-governmental organization PROPAGE provided the first description of this cultivation practice in a study on the potential of Moringa cultivation for water treatment.
The research described in this paper was undertaken at the initiative of PROPAGE in order to bring findings up-to-date, to note any evolution in this cultivation practice and to devote more study to the Moringa commercial network in Niger. The research was done during the months of May and June, 1999, in collaboration with the Institute of Agronomic Research of Niger (INRAN).
Fighting malnutrition with Moringa oleifera leaves: an untapped resource
Dr Armelle de Saint Sauveur and Dr Mélanie Broin.
The Moringa oleifera tree, native to India, now grows all over the tropics, especially in Africa where scientists, entrepreneurs and NGOs share a growing interest in this tree. The nutritional value of its leaves, rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins, has inspired numerous nutrition and health-food initiatives in Africa, Europe and the United States.
In preventing malnutrition, the medicinal use of Moringa is weakly regulated.
Certain programs fighting malnutrition in Senegal, India, Benin and Zimbabwe are now using Moringa leaves, traditionally eaten in countries such as Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Ethiopia.
Malungguy , Package of Technology , VIVENCIO R. MAMARIL
Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Plant Industry
Department of Agriculture
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
1. Planting materials
2. Propagation techniques
3. Commercial herbage production
4. Malunggay production economics
5. Commercial seed production
6. On‐going researches
Moringa: The Ideal Food for Obese and Malnourished?
by Monica G. Marcu, PhD, Pharm.D.
If I would tell you that science has discovered and characterized an amazing edible plant, loaded with most nutrients that we need (all essential amino acids, beneficial fats and omega oils, rich amounts of calcium and iron and many other vital minerals, as well as a wide variety and copious amounts of vitamins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances) but very few calories attached to it, what would you say ? Wow - you would probably get immediately excited and start to look for it or try to find out more details. You would probably be thinking that such a treasure is to be found somewhere around the corner or news about it would abound in the health magazines, right? I guess that is how it should be but, as with so many other important but neglected issues today, Moringa did not capture yet too much attention from mass-media or the food and health press. And here is where I should start my hard work as a crusader for the Miracle Tree, or Miracle Food Moringa oleifera.
The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses
By Foidl N., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K.
Moringa Oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) belongs to a monogeneric family of shrubs and tree, Moringaceae and is considered to have its origin in Agra and Oudh, in the northwest region of India, south of the Himalayan Mountains. Although the name “Shigon” for M. oleifera is mentioned in the “Shushruta Sanhita” which was written in the beginning of the first century A.D., there is evidence that the cultivation of this tree in India dates back many thousands of years. The Indians knew that the seeds contain edible oil and they used them for medicinal purposes. It is probable that the common people also knew of its value as a fodder or vegetable. This tree can be found growing naturally at elevations of up to 1,000 m above sea level. It can grow well on hillsides but is more frequently found growing on pastureland or in river basins. It is a fast growing tree and has been found to grow to 6 – 7 m in one year in areas receiving less than 400 mm mean annual rainfall (Odee, 1998).
In the Dravidian language, there are many local names for this tree but all are derived from the generic root “Morunga”. In English it is commonly known as Horseradish tree, Drumstick tree, Never Die tree, West Indian Ben tree, and Radish tree (Ramachandran et al., 1980).